LEED EA

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LEED EA - Energy and Atmosphere

Good Site Planning principles include how to properly site your home, properly managing construction practices for the site, surface storm-water control, minimizing environmental impact with heat island control and non-toxic chemicals.

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Building consume approximately 37% of the energy and 68% of the electricity produced in the United States annually, according to the US Department of Energy. In 2006, total emissions from residential buildings were responsible for 1.2 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions, or 20% of the USA total.

Greenhouse gases, if left unchecked are estimated to raise our global temperatures from 2.5 to 10 degrees over the course of the 21st century. Meeting this challenge will take a great deal of high technology and responsibility and a LEED for Homes rated home is leading the way in that challenge.

Building green homes is one of the best avenues toward reduction in greenhouse gases because of the new technologies that are available to us in home design and construction. The average LEED certified home uses 30 to 40% less electricity than a conventional home and it saves more than 100 metric tons of CO2 emissions over its lifetime. Not only is a LEED certified home a big energy-saver, it is a much healthier environment for both the construction workers and the owners of the home as well.

LEED EA provides (2) pathways to get points.

The first method is a performance pathway which utilizes approved energy analysis software programs to demonstrate the overall energy performance of the home's design. The second pathway is a prescriptive pathway that enables a project o achieve LEED point points without the need for computer energy modeling. The project needs to demonstrate that each of the prescriptive requirements of EZ 2-10 has been achieved.

Green Living Made Easy has addressed many of these issues within the pages of our web site. We will direct you to the appropriate pages as you work through each of these LEED EA Energy and Atmosphere Credits.

Total Points Available = 38

Minimum Points Needed = 0

  • EA 1
  • EA 2
  • EA 3
  • EA 4
  • EA 5
  • EA 6
  • EA 7
  • EA 8
  • EA 9
  • EA 10
  • EA 11
Optimize Energy Performance LEED EA 1 Intent:

Improve the overall energy performance of a home by meeting or exceeding the performance of an ENERGY STAR labeled home.

Prerequisites: Performance of ENERGY STAR for Homes (Prerequisite) LEED EA 1.1

Meet the performance requirements of ENERGY STAR for Homes, including third party inspections.

Credits: Exceptional Energy Performance (34 points max) LEED EA 1.2

Exceed the performance of ENERGY STAR for homes. Use the equations below relating the Home Energy Standards (HERS) Index to the appropriate number of LEED EA points.

South: LEED EA points = {[Log (100-HERS Index)]/0.024}-48.3

North: LEED EA points = {[Log (100-HERS Index)]/0.021}-60.8

Overview:

EA 1 is a performance pathway that requires the builder to use an approved energy analysis software program to demonstrate the overall performance of the home's design (in combination with credits EA 7.1, 7.2, and 11) For EA 1, Home Energy Rating Software (HERS) must be used to assess the energy efficiency of the home compared to the 2004 version of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The software will assign an index, which is an indicator of its energy efficiency.

Each home that is designed to comply with IECC 2004 starts with a (HERS) index of 100.Each additional HERS index point is roughly equal to a 1% increase in energy use over a home that is design to the IECC standard.
Hover HEREto see the HERS Index Table

LEED homes are designed to the EPA ENERGY STAR home standard, which is designed to use 15 to 20% less energy that a IECC 2004 rated home and will start with a HERS index of 80 to 85.

Energy Star Homes must be verified by a third party. This verification includes 3 types of activities, which are:

    Thermal Bypass Inspection - this is made prior to installation of the drywall.
    Visual inspection of all installed overall envelope tightness and duct tightness.
    Performance tests, including overall envelope tightness and duct tightness.

Higher levels of energy efficiency can be attained for a maximum of up to 34 LEED EA credits.
Hover HERE to see the HERS Index Table

Approach LEED EA 1.1 (Prerequisite):

The mandatory minimum that a home must meet is an ENERGY STAR rated home, although it need not be ENERGY STAR labeled - only meet the design standards.

    A home that has exceptional energy performance under EA 1.2 will automatically demonstrate compliance with the prerequisite, EA 1.1.
    The HERS index software models every aspect of the home design including insulation levels, air sealing, window size and specification, distribution system, space heating and cooling equipment size, water heating, lighting, appliances, and even renewable energy.
    Work with an energy star Rater to determine the most appropriate measures for each project.
    Ideas for efficiency upgrades can be found in the alternative compliance pathway (LEED EA 2-10).
    An ENERGY STAR home may not get credit for renewable energy systems as a component of the minimum HERS index of 85 for homes located in IECC climate zones 1 through 5.
    The use of electric resistance heating will prevent a home from scoring well on the HERS index unless the home has practically no heating demand. If natural gas is not available and electric must be used as the heat source, consider an electric heat pump with a programmable thermostat and adaptive recovery equipment.
Approach: Credit LEED EA 1.2
    The mandatory minimum that a home must meet is an ENERGY STAR rated home, although it need not be ENERGY STAR labeled - only meet the design standards, but Project Teams are strongly encouraged to pursue the ENERGY STAR home certification.
    A home that has exceptional energy performance under EA 1.2 will automatically demonstrate compliance with the prerequisite, EA 1.1.
    Passive Solar Design: Consider using passive solar as a way to supply some or all of the heating source to the house from the building south-facing glass. Carefully analyze existing climatic conditions for possibilities in passive solar design.
    Thermal Mass: Use this in combination with the Passive Solar Design. Design mass into the home floors and walls to store energy.
    Shading Control: Consider roof overhangs, blinds, and light shelves to control sunlight for both summer and winter months.
    Distribution: Consider collecting and distribution of captured solar heat with modifications to your existing ducted heating and air-conditioning distribution system.
    Active Solar Design: Use fans and pumps to circulate air and fluids of solar heated systems such as solar water heaters, hydronic heat pumps etc.
    Renewable energy sources: Consider the use of photovoltaic arrays and wind generators. Investigate the possibilities of net metering and tax credits from local, state and federal programs.
    Landscaping: Carefully work your landscaping design into the total energy planning. Consideration of shading, deciduous tree placement, heat island control and many other factor can control how much energy is used in our homes.
Calculations:

No calculations are required beyond those provided for the energy modeling software.

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals LEED EA 1.1:

Builder/Project Team: Provide calculations and all equipment specifications and performances to Green Rater. Include all product literature and equipment specifications in the Owner Manual.

Green Rater:Complete the verification requirements for an ENERGY STAR home, including thermal bypass inspection, envelope air leakage testing with a blower door, and duct leakage testing with a duct pressurization fan.

Verification and Submittals LEED EA 1.2:

Builder/Project Team: Provide calculations and all equipment specifications and performances to Green Rater. Include all product literature and equipment specifications in the Owner Manual.

Green Rater: Conduct the necessary modeling to produce a HERS index, or have an independent energy rater conduct the necessary energy modeling. Verify that the HERS index for the home meets or exceeds the prerequisite. Include a copy of the HERS rating report in the project documentation file and the Owner Operations manual.

Resources:
    ENERGY STAR Qualified New Homes Program; US EPA
    2004 International Energy Conservation Code; International Code Council
    American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
    Building America Program; US Department of Energy
    Building Energy Codes Program; US Department of Energy
    Energy Simulation Software: National Renewable Energy Program
    EnergyGauge: Energy and Economic Analysis Software: Florida Solar Energy Center
    REM Software Series: Architectural Energy Corporation
    Residential Energy Services Network
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for this credit must skip credits LEED EA 2-6, 7.3, and 8-10.

Passive solar designs must be modeled and can take credit using the approach laid out in LEED EA 1.

Shading and the reduction of local heat island effects (LEED SS 3) can reduce energy demands for space cooling. Similarly, vegetated roofs (LEED SS 4.3) can reduce both space heating and cooling loads.

High-efficiency appliances and fixtures (LEED WE 3) can reduce hot water demand.

Reduced framing (LEED MR 1) can allow for more insulation and fewer thermal breaks.

Proper design and verification of space heating and cooling distribution systems (LEED EQ 6) can help provide thermal comfort with minimized waste. In hot and humid climates, effective dehumidification (LEED EQ 3) can significantly reduce cooling loads.

HERS Index and LEED Points Table
HERS Index Percent Above IECC 2004 LEED EA Points Climate Zones 1-5 LEED EA Points Climate Zones 6-8
100 0 0 0
95 5 0 0
90 10 0 0
85 15 0 0
84 16 2.0 0
83 17 3.0 0
82 18 4.0 0
81 19 5.0 0
80 20 6.0 0
79 21 7.0 2.0
78 22 7.5 3.0
77 23 8.5 4.0
76 24 9.0 5.0
75 25 10.0 6.0
74 26 10.5 6.5
73 27 11.6 7.5
72 28 12.0 8.0
71 29 12.5 9.0
70 30 13.0 9.5
69 31 14.0 10.0
68 32 14.5 11.0
67 33 15.0 11.5
66 34 15.5 12.0
65 35 16.0 12.5
64 36 16.5 13.5
63 37 17.0 14.0
62 38 17.5 14.5
61 39 18.0 15.0
60 40 18.5 15.5
55 45 20.5 18.0
50 50 22.5 20.0
45 55 24.2 22.0
40 60 26.0 24.0
35 65 27.0 25.5
30 70 28.5 27.0
25 75 30.0 28.5
20 80 31.0 30.0
15 85 32.0 31.0
10 90 33.0 32.0
5 95 33.5 33.0
0 100 34.0 34.0
Insulation LEED EA 2 Intent:

Design and install insulation to minimize heat transfer and thermal bridging.

Prerequisites: Basic Insulation (Prerequisite) LEED EA 2.1

Meet al the following requirements:

    Install insulation that meets or exceeds the R-value requirements listed in Chapter 4 of the 2004 International Energy Conservation Code. Alternative wall and insulation systems, such as structural insulated panels (SIP's) and insulated concrete forms (ICF's), must demonstrate a comparable R-value, but thermal mass or infiltration effects cannot be included in the R-value calculation.

    Install insulation to meet the Grade II specification set by the National Home Energy Rating Standards.
    Hover HERE to see the Insulation Installation Table. Installation must be verified by an energy rater or Green Rater conducting a pre-drywall thermal bypass inspection, as summarized HERE.

    Note: For any portion of the home constructed with SIP's or ICF's, the rater must conduct a modified visual inspection using the ENERGY STAR Structural Insulated Panel Visual Inspection Form.

Credit: Enhanced Insulation (2 points) LEED ED 2.2

Meet the following requirements:

    Install insulation that exceeds the R-value requirements listed in Chapter 4 of the 2004 International Energy Conservation Code by at least 5%. Alternative wall and insulation systems, such as structural insulated panels (SIPs) and insulated concrete forms (ICFs) must demonstrate a comparable R-value, but thermal mass or infiltration effects cannot be included in the R-value calculation.

    Install insulation to meet the Grade I specifications set by the National Home Energy Rating Standards.
    Hover HERE to see table. Installation must be verified by an energy rater or Green Rater conducting a pre drywall thermal bypass inspection as summarized in Figure 1.

    Note: For any portion of the home constructed with SIP's or ICF's, the rater must conduct a modified visual inspection using the ENERGY STAR Structural Insulated Panel Visual Inspection Form.

Overview:
    Approximately 25% of a home's heat losses and gains is due to heat flow into the home's thermal envelope, which include the walls, floor and attic. The 2004 IECC code is the most commonly used energy code in the US and be aware that insulation requirements vary over different parts of the country.
    RESCHECK, developed by the US DOE, is an easy to use software program that determines whether a home's insulation levels med the IECC requirements.
    Energy efficient homes may demonstration substantially better than minimum insulation standards than required by IECC. It has been shown however that improper installation techniques can severely compromise the quality of the insulation. Defects such as voids, missing insulation, cracks, thermal bypasses and thermal bridging commonly occur. Properly installed, high-R-value insulation can achieve substantial energy savings, plus enhance the comfort and durability of the home through energy savings and condensation control.
Approach:
    After selecting the type of insulation, determine the amount to install. Level requirements are listed in IECC. because improper installation can severely compromise insulation values, installation crews should be trained as to proper installation techniques.
    Additional energy efficiency benefits can be achieved by adding more insulation than is required by IECC 2004 and meeting the installation criteria for HERS Grade. If not all of the insulation exceeds code by 5%, a home can still meet the requirements of LEED EA 2.2 by demonstrating that the average overall thermal conductance value (UA) exceed code by 5% using the RES CHECk software.
Calculations:

No calculations are required beyond those provided for the energy modeling software.

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Builder/Project Team: If using RESCHECK to demonstrate overall performance,provide calculations to the Green Rater

Green Rater: Visually inspect the installation of the insulation with the thermal bypass method. If manual calculations or RESCHECK software is used to demonstrate overall performance, visually verify the calculations.

Resources:
    2004 International Energy Conservation Code; International Code Council
    Builder Information: Residential Energy Services Network
    Energy Star Qualified New Homes Program
    Residential Compliance Using RESCHECK
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and all of the associated prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

LEED MR 1.2-1.5 address framing efficiency. Efficient framing can create additional spacing in wall cavities, reducing thermal breaks and insulation compaction.

Environmentally preferable insulation is awarded in LEED MR 2.2.

Summary of HERS Insulation Installation Guide
Grade Description
I Meet the requirements of Grade II (below), but allow only very small gaps, and compression or incomplete fill amounts to 2% or less.
II Moderate to frequent installation defects, gaps around wiring, electric outlets, etc. and incomplete fill amounts to 10% or less. Gaps running clear through the insulation amount to no more than 2% of the total surface area covered by the insulation. Wall insulation in enclosed on all size sides and is substantial contact with the sheathing material on at least one side (interior or exterior) of the cavity.
Air Infiltration LEED EA 3 Intent:

Minimize Energy consumption caused by uncontrolled air leakage into and out of conditioned spaces.

Prerequisites: Reduced Envelope Leakage LEED EA 3.1

Meeting the air leakage requirement shown in the Air Leakage Table. Mouse Over HERE to see table. The air leakage rate must be tested and verified by an energy rater.

Credits: Greatly Reduced Envelope Leakage (2 points) LEED EA 3.2

Meet the air leakage requirements shown in Table 1 (Mouse over HERE to see table) The air leakage rate must be tested and verified by an energy rater.

-OR-

Minimal Envelop Leakage (3 points) LEED EA 3.3

Meet the air leakage requirements shown in Table 1
Hover HERE to see table) The air leakage rate must be tested and verified by an energy rater.

Overview:
    Approximately one-quarter of the heating losses and gains in a new home is due to air leakage through the thermal envelope. Unless it is located in a very mild climate, every LEED home must have a mechanical ventilation system. As a result of this the envelope must be substantially tighter. More importantly tighter homes have improved durability and less condensation that a conventional home.
    Homes in mild climates, i.e. fewer than 4,500 infiltration degree-days, can achieve abundant natural ventilation through open windows most of the year.

The standard for this credit is air changes per hour (ACH), a 25 year old approach base on the Grimsrud-Sherman Model. The ACH approach penalizes small buildings, which tent to have higher surface area to volume ratio, and it rewards large buildings that are obviously more resource intensive. An alternative approach to measuring envelope air leakage is to normalize the leakage based on the surface area of all six sides of the cube or building enclosure. Comparable envelope leakage rates with the alternative metric are as follows:

    0.35 cfm/s.f. of building enclosure area @ 50 Pa
    0.25 cfm/s.f. of building enclosure area @ 50 Pa
    0.15 cfm/s.f. of building enclosure area @ 50 Pa
    This section rewards builder who use air sealing techniques to tighten the envelopes of new homes.
Approach:
    Air-seal all leakage location such as plumbing and electrical penetrations in the exterior envelope.
    Verify that all areas where dissimilar materials meets are well sealed.
    A certified energy rater must verify the air leakage rate using a depressurization (blower door) test.
    Leaks are easily seen with the blower door operating. Using a smoke stick, identify major air leaks, seal them, and confirm that these leakage sites have been eliminated.
    Generally, new homes should not be tightened to below about 6.0 ACH at 50 Pascals unless alternative means of bringing in fresh air is designed into the home.
Calculations:

No calculations are needed for this credit if the blower door test produces a result in ACH50. Use this formula:

ACH 50 = CFM 50 x 60 min's/hr/volume.

Verification and Submittals:

Energy Rater: Perform a blower door depressurization test on the home to determine the envelope leakage.

Exemplary Performance:

None

Resources:
    Standard 62.202007: Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings, Section 4.1.3
    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

Natural air leakage through the envelope contributes to the overall ventilation rate of the home. From a health perspective, it is important to not under ventilate a home. From an energy perspective, it is also important not to over ventilate. LEED EQ 4 addresses the balance between mechanical and natural ventilation.

Air Leakage Requirements Table
LEED Criteria IECC Climate Zones 1-2 IECC Climate Zones 3-4 IECC Climate Zones 5-7 IECC Climate Zones 8
LEED EA 3.1: Reduced Envelope Leakage (mandatory) 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0
LEED EA 3.2: Greatly Reduced Envelope Leakage (optional) 5.0 4.25 3.5 2.75
LEED EA 3.3: Minimal Envelope Leakage (optional) 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5
Windows LEED EA 4 Intent:

Maximize the energy performance of windows.

Prerequisites: Good Windows LEED EA 4.1

Meet all the following requirements.

    Design and install windows and glass doors that have NFRC ratings that meet or exceed the window requirements of the ENERGY STAR for Homes national Building Option Package
    Hover HERE to see Zones for Window Specifications.
    The ratio of skylight glazing to conditioned floor area may not exceed 3%. All skylights must meet the ENERGY STAR performance requirements for skylights, but are exempt from the requirements in Table 1.
    Hover HERE to see Table
    Homes in the Northern or North/Central climate zones that have a total window-to-floor area ratio (WFA) of 18% or more must met a more stringent U-factor requirement (Also applicable to LEED EA 4.2 and 4.3): U-factor = [0.18 / WFA] . [U-factor from table 1]. Hover HERE for table 1.
    Homes in the Southern or South/Central climate zones that have a total window-to-floor area ratio (WFA) of 18% or more must meet a more stringent solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirement (also applicable to EA 4.2 and 4.3): SHGC = [0.18/WFA] x [SHGC from Table 1].
    Hover HERE to see table 1.

Note: Up to 0.75% of the window-to-floor area may be used for decorative glass or skylight area that does not meet the U-factor and SHGC requirements above.

Credits: Enhanced Windows (2 po.nts). LEED EA 4.2

Design and install window and glass doors that have NFRC ratings that exceed the window requirements in the ENERGY STAR for Homes national Building Option Package.
Hover HERE to see Window table.

-OR-

Exceptional Windows (3 points) LEED EA 4.3

Design and install window and glass doors that have NFRC ratings that substantially exceed the window requirements in the ENERGY STAR for Homes national Building Option Package.
Hover HERE to see Zones for Window Specifications.

Overview:
    Approximately 25% of the heat gains and losses in new homes are through the windows. Going with high performance windows can substantially reduce energy costs in your home.olar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) is a labeling program that quantifies the thermal performance of windows.
    The U-factor is a measure of the thermal resistance to heat flow of the overall window. Building codes require U-factors that range from 0.35 in northern states to 1.2 in southern states. The lower the value, the greater the resistance to heat flow.
    The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient SHGC is the ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation.
    Better performing windows not only give greater comfort the the building occupants, they also save substantial energy and reduce or eliminate condensation. This section rewards the selection of excellent quality windows that exceed the ENERGY STAR specification.
Approach:
    Most new windows have NFRC stickers indicating that they offer the U-factor and SHGC ratings clearly on the windows.
    Factors that affect the NFRC rating value are the type of glass, amount of glass, number of layers of glass, frame material, number of glass panes, low-E coating, warm edge spacers, and gas filling.
    When designing windows take into consideration the design and location of the home. U-factor is more important in cold climates, whereas SHGV is more important in hot climates.
    If you choose not to spend the extra money for quality windows, minimize the use of windows in the home to reduce the energy consumption.
    Be sure to install the windows properly to ensure there is no air leakage or water leakage.
    When recessing windows in cold climates, be sure to take into consideration stagnant air and condensation problems.
Calculations:

Calculations for this credit are required in the following circumstances:

    If the window-to-floor area ratio exceeds 18%, calculate the WFA using the following equation: WFA = Total Glazing Area (s.f.)/Total Conditioned Floor Area (s.f.).
    If the WFA exceeds 18%, the requirements for the prerequisite and each credit change in the following ways: In Northern and North Central zones, meet the following requirement: U-Factor = (18/WFA) x (U-factor in Table 1). In Southern and South-Central zones, meet the following requirement: SHGC = (18/WFA) x (SHGC in Table 1).
    If a solar screen is used to meet the SHGC requirements, the overall SHGC for a window unit with solar screen is determined by the following equation: SHGC (overall) = [(Window SHGC) x (Solar Screen SHGC) x (Percentage of Area Covered)] + (Window SHGC x Percentage of Area Not Covered)
Verification and Submittals:

Builder/Project Team: Present any equipment literature to the Green Rater. Present any calculation related to excess window area, solar screens, or U-value and SHGC averaging to the Green Rater.

Green Rater: Visually verify that the window specifications meet the requirements. Visually verify any calculations related to the windows.

Exemplary Performance:

Homes that install windows that exceed the performance specifications in LEED EA 4.3 should follow the performance pathway LEED EA 1 to earn credit.

Resources:
    Efficient Windows Collaborative
    NFRC Window Label: National Fenestration Rating Council
    Residential Windows, Doors and Skylights: US EPA ENERGY STAR program
    Windows and Daylighting: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

Improving the window performance may also reduce heating and/or cooling loads and the energy associated with operating heating and cooling equipment.

ENERGY STAR Requirements For Windows & Glass Doors
LEED Criteria Metric Northern North Central South Central Southern
LEED EA 4.1: Good Windows (Prerequisite) U-factor SHGC

<=0.35 Any

<=0.40 <=0.45 <=0.40 <=0.40 <=0.55 <=0.35
LEED EA 4.2: Enhanced Windows (optional, 2 points) U-factor SHGC

<=0.31 Any

<=0.35 <=0.40 <=0.35 <=0.35 <=0.55 <=0.33
LEED EA 4.3: Exceptional Windows (optional, 3 points) U-factor SHGC

<=0.28 Any

<=0.32 <=0.40 <=0.32 <=0.30 <=0.55 <=0.30
Energy Star Zones For Windows
Heating and Cooling Distribution Systems LEED EA 5 Intent:

Minimize energy consumption due to thermal bridging and/or leaks in the heating and cooling distribution system.

Prerequisites Forced Air Systems: Reduced Distribution Losses EA 5.1

Meet the following requirements:

    Limit duct air leakage rate to outside the conditioned envelope. The tested duct leakage rate must be <= 4.0 cfm at 25 Pascals per 100 s.f. of conditioned floor area (for each installed system), verified by the energy rater. Testing is waived if the home meets LEED EA 5.3 (b) or (c).
    Do not install ducts in exterior walls unless extra insulation is added to maintain the overall UA for an exterior wall without ducts. Ducts may be run inside interior wall cavities but must be fully ducted. (i.e., do not use wall cavity as the duct).
    Use at least R-6 insulation around ducts in unconditioned spaces.
Credits Forced Air Systems: Greatly Reduced Distribution Losses (2 points) LEED EA 5.2

Limit duct air leakage to outside the conditioned envelope. The tested duct leakage rate must be <= 3.0 cfm at 25 pascals per 100 s.f. of conditioned floor area (for each installed system), verified by the energy rater.

-OR-

Minimal Distribution Losses (3 points) LEED EA 5.3

Meet one of the following requirements:

    Limit duct air leakage to outside the conditioned envelope. The tested duct leakage rate must be <= 1.0 cfm at 25 Pascals per 100 s.f. of conditioned floor area, verified by the energy rater.

    Locate the air-handler unit and all ductwork within the conditioned envelope and minimize envelope leakage (meet requirements of LEED EA 3.3).

    Locate the air-handler unit and all ductwork visibly within conditioned spaces. (i.e., no ductwork hidden in walls, chases, floors, r ceilings).

    Prerequisites Non-Ducted Systems: Reduced Distribution Losses EA 5.1

    Use at least R-3 insulation around distribution pipes in unconditioned spaces.

Credits for Non-Ducted Systems: Greatly Reduced Distribution Losses (2 points) LEED EA 5.2

Keep the system (including the boiler and distribution pipes) entirely within the conditioned envelope. Minimal Distribution Losses (1 point) LEED EA 5.2:

Install outdoor reset control (i.e., controls that modulate distribution water temperature based on outdoor air temperature). Overview:

    In typical new homes, air leakage from ductwork can account for between 15 and 25 percent of the total heating and cooling energy losses. It is not uncommon for typical duct systems to reach 20 cfm of leakage per 100 s.f. of conditioned space. Reducing the duct leakage rate saves a lot of energy and solves a lot of problems in the home such as drawing moisture in through the ducts or drawing in contaminates. Testing ducts for leakage is relatively easy by means of a duct blaster and can achieve a net "zero" air loss in a well designed and installed HVAC system. Homes with hot water (hydronic) systems uses a separate set of credits to address possible issues with this installed system.
Approach:
    During the installation, minimize the number of kinks or seams in the ductwork. Work with other trades to coordinate their work to insure smooth interaction between them. Prior to duct testing, seal all duct system holes, seams, joints, transitions, cracks and penetrations with water-based mastic. Seal seams and joints at the air handler and supply-return plenums with mastic and fiberglass mesh for added resistance to vibration.
Calculations:

None

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Green Rater or Energy Rater: Forced-Air Systems: Perform duct leakage testing (with a duct blaster) that the ducts meet the requirements above. Visually verify that the duct installation and insulation meet the prerequisite or credit requirements.

Green Rater or Energy Rater: Non-ducted HVAC Systems: Visually verify that the prerequisite or credit requirements are met.

Resources:
    Advanced Energy Tech Tips: Duct Sealing
    An Introduction to Residential Duct Systems: Lawrence Livermore
    Duct Sealing: US EPA ENERGY STAR Program
    Air Distribution System Installation and Sealing: Toolbase Services
    Residential HVAC Design Software Wrightsoft Corporation
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

LEED EQ 6 requires proper duct design to ensure adequate air flow and includes credit for testing air flow into each room. LEED MR 1.2-1.5 address framing efficiency. HVAC and framing efficiency are closely linked: floor, ceiling, and roof framing layouts should be designed to use framing material efficiently and at the same time accommodate duct runs as efficiently as possible. Addressing both simultaneously provides an opportunity to achieve multiple resource efficiencies through one design exercise.

LEED EQ prerequisite 10 prohibits the placement of ductwork in the garage.

Space Heating and Cooling Equipment LEED EA 6 Intent:

Reduce energy consumption associated with heating and cooling systems. Note that both heating and space cooling equipment must meet the requirements of this credit. If only one type of equipment qualifies, then half the points shall be taken. Homes built without air-conditioning should be modeled under LEED EA 1, using the default in both the reference and the rated homes.

Prerequisites: Good HVAC Design and Installation: LEED EA 6.1

Meet each of the following requirements:

    Design and size HVAC equipment properly using ACCA Manual J, the ASHRAE 2001 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation model.
    Install HVAC equipment that meets the requirements of the ENERGY STAR for Homes national Building Option Package.
    Hover HERE to see HVAC Requirements Table)
    Install ENERGY STAR labeled programmable thermostat (except heat pumps and hydronic systems).
Credits: High-Efficiency HVAC (2 points) LEED EA 6.2

Design and install HVAC equipment that is better than the equipment required by the ENERGY STAR Builder Option Package (Mouse Over HERE to see Table of Option Package
Hover HERE to see HVAC Requirements Table)

-OR-

Very High-Efficiency HVAC (2 points max) LEED EA 6.3

Design and install HVAC equipment that is substantially better than the equipment required by the ENERGY STAR Builder Option Package
Hover HERE to see HVAC Requirements Table)

Any piping designed as part of a heat pump system to carry water that is well above (or below) the thermostatic temperature settings in the home must have R-4 insulation or greater.

Note: The maximum of 4 points is available only if a heat pump is installed. Furnace and boiler systems can earn a maximum of 3 points.

Overview:

HVAC systems in the home are big energy users. Installation of ENERGY STAR HVAC systems in our homes can save as much as 20 to 30% in energy costs alone. The energy system offers three opportunities to save energy: equipment sizing, efficiency levels and refrigerant installation. This Credit category rewards installations that exceeds the ENERGY STAR for Homes national Builder Option Package.

Approach:

LEED EA 6 requires a three-step process:

    First, use the ACCA Manual J, ASHRAE 2001 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure to determine HVAC loads.
    Secondly, use ACCA Manual S to size the HVAC equipment, based on the Manual J calculation.
    Third, select, design, and install HVAC equipment that meets the performance specifications in the credit.
    Since Manual J has a bit-in 15% cushion for extraordinary loading conditions, do not build in additional redundancy within your calculations by manipulating design temperatures, adding occupants or changing R-values or orientations.
    If a system's air-conditioning is oversized it will run a shorter amount of time and not properly dehumidify the spaces.
    The use of electric resistance heating will prevent a home from scoring well on the HERS index unless the home has practically no heating demand. If electric heating is preferred or natural gas in unavailable, consider using an electric heat pump. If a heat pump in installed with a programmable thermostat, the thermostat must be equipped with adaptive recovery.
Calculations:

Other than the ACCA Manual J equipment sizing calculation, no additional calculations are needed for this credit.

Verification and Submittals:

Trade: Provide design calculation related to the HVAC design to the builder or Project Team Leader. Provide all HVAC literature to the builder or Team Leader. Sign accountability form to indicate that the system was installed per requirements.

Builder/Project Team: Present design calculation to the Green Rater. Provide system specifications and literature to the Green Rater. Place the literature in the Home owner's Project Manual.

Green Rater: Visually verify that all HVAC design calculation are complete. Visually verify the type of equipment installed and its efficiency. Verify that an Accountability Form has been signed by the responsible party.

Exemplary Performance.

None

Resources:
    ARI Director of Certified Product Performance: A/C Institute
    Heating and Cooling Efficiency: US EPA ENERGY STAR Program
    Residential Gas Heating: Consortium for Energy Efficiency
    Residential HVAC Design Software: Wrightsoft Corporation
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

Substantial energy savings can be achieved by using heat recovery equipment. Heat or energy recovery systems are rewarded in LEED EQ 4.2.

LEED EQ prerequisite 10 prohibits the placement of ductwork in the garage. LEED EA 11 requires refrigerant charge test and encourages the selection of preferred refrigerants.

HVAC Requirements for IECC Climate Zones 4-8
LEED Criteria End Use Central AC and air source heat pumps Furnaces (gas oil or propane) Boilers (gas, oil, or propane) Open Loop Geo thermal Closed Loop Geo Thermal Direct Expansion
LEED EA 6.1: Good HVAC Design and Installation (Prerequisite) Cooling Heating

>=13 SEER >= 8.2 HSPF

>= 90 AFUE >= 85 AFUE >=16.2 EER <=3.6 COP >=14.1 EER >=3.3 COP >=15 EER >=3.5 COP
LEED EA 6.2: High Efficiency HVAC (2 points) Cooling Heating

>=14 SEER >= 8.6 HSPF

>= 92 AFUE >= 87 AFUE >=17.8 EER <=4.0 COP >=15.5 EER >=3.6 COP >=16.5 EER >=3.9 COP
LEED EA 6.3: Very High Efficiency HVAC (heat pump, 4 points; other systems, 3 points) Cooling Heating

>=15 SEER >= 9.0 HSPF

>= 94 AFUE >= 90 AFUE >=19.4 EER <=4.3 COP >=17 EER >=4.0 COP >=18 EER >=4.2 COP
HVAC Requirements for IECC Climate Zones 1-3
LEED Criteria End Use Central AC and air source heat pumps Furnaces (gas oil or propane) Boilers (gas, oil, or propane) Open Loop Geo thermal Closed Loop Geo Thermal Direct Expansion
LEED EA 6.1: Good HVAC Design and Installation (Prerequisite) Cooling Heating

>=14 SEER >= 8.2 HSPF

>= 80 AFUE >= 80 AFUE >=16.2 EER <=3.6 COP >=14.1 EER >=3.3 COP >=15 EER >=3.5 COP
LEED EA 6.2: High Efficiency HVAC (2 points) Cooling Heating

>=15 SEER >= 8.6 HSPF

>= 90 AFUE >= 85 AFUE >=17.8 EER <=4.0 COP >=15.5 EER >=3.6 COP >=16.5 EER >=3.9 COP
LEED EA 6.3: Very High Efficiency HVAC (heat pump, 4 points; other systems, 3 points) Cooling Heating

>=16 SEER >= 9.0 HSPF

>= 92 AFUE >= 87 AFUE >=19.4 EER <=4.3 COP >=17 EER >=4.0 COP >=18 EER >=4.2 COP
Water Heating LEED EA 7 Intent:

Reduce energy consumption associated with domestic hot water systems, including improving the efficiency of both the hot water design and the layout of the fixture in the home.

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: Efficient Hot Water Distribution (2 points) LEED 7.1

Design and install an energy efficient hot water distribution system. None of the branch length requirements below apply to cold water demand loads (e.g. toilets), washing machines, or tubs without showerheads. Select one of the following designs:

Structured plumbing systems. The system must meet all of the following:

    The system must have a demand-controlled circulation loop that is insulated to at least R-4.
    The total length of the circulation loop must be less than 40 linear feet of plumbing in one-story homes. Add 2x the ceiling height for two-story homes, and add 4x the ceiling height for three-or four-story homes.
    Branch lines from the loop to each fixture must be <= 10 feet ling and a maximum of 1/2 inch nominal diameter.
    The system must be designed with a push button control in each full bathroom and the kitchen and an automatic pump shut-off.

Central manifold distribution systems. The system must meet all of the following:

    The central manifold trunk must be not more than 6 feet in length.
    The central manifold trunk must be insulated to at least R-4.
    No branch line from the central manifold to any fixtures may exceed 20 feet in one-story homes. add 1 the ceiling height for two-story homes, and add 2x the ceiling height for three or four-story homes.
    Branch line from the manifold must be a maximum of 1/2 inch nominal diameter.

Compact design of conventional system. The system must meet all of the following:

    No branch line from the water heater to any fixtures man exceed 20 fee in one-story homes. Add 1 x the ceiling height for two-story homes, and add 2x the ceiling height for three and four-story homes.
    Branch lines from the central header to each fixture must be a maximum of a 1/2 inch diameter.
Pipe Insulation: (1 point) LEED EA 7.2

All domestic hot water piping shall have R-4 insulation. All insulation shall also be applied to all 90 degree elbows to insulate the 90 degree bend.

Efficient Domestic Hot Water: (3 points max) LEED EA 7.3

Design and install energy efficient water heating equipment.
Hover HERE to select Desired Water Heater Measure.

Overview:
    As much as 33% of a home's total energy usage can be heating water. Heating water from room temperature to 140 degrees takes a lot of energy and a great portion of the energy is lost in the piping system and storage tank.
    Approximately 10 to 15% of energy is lost in distribution losses alone. One way to save a great amount of energy is to shorten the piping distribution throughout the house to as short and compact as possible.
    Another way is to completely insulate hot water piping, including all joints and bends.
    The third measure is to select energy efficient water heaters and storage equipment.
Approach:
    Design a home with a central plumbing core and minimize the branch run lengths by keeping the kitchen, laundry and baths all within close proximity.
    Also design the system with the water heater in very close proximity to the plumbing core. Design the plumbing system in a tree-like manner, keeping the branches short.
    Utilize low-flow shower heads and faucet aerators that are awarded in LEED WE 3 to save hot water as well.
Calculations:

Other than the maximum pipe length measurements in EA 7.1, no calculations are needed for this credit.

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Trade: LEED EA 7.1: Sign Accountability Form to indicate that the hot water distribution system is installed according to the credit requirements. EA 7.3: Provide any equipment literature related to the hot water distribution system to the builder or project team leader. For solar water heater provide calculations to the builder or team leader demonstrating the percentage of the annual domestic hot water load being met.

Builder/Project Team: EA 7.3 Present any literature related o the hot water distribution system to the Green Rater. Include equipment literature in the Owner's operation and maintenance manual. For a solar water heater, present calculations to the Green Rater demonstrating the percentage of the annual domestic hot water load being met.

Green Rater: EA 7.1 Visually verify the design of the hot water distribution system. Verify that an Accountability Form has been sighed by the responsible party. EA 7.2 Visually verify that pipes are insulated according to the credit requirements. EA 7.3 Visually verify the type of equipment installed and its efficiency. For solar hot water heater, visually verify that the calculations meet the requirements.

Resources:
    Solar Water Heaters: US DOE
    Solar Hot Water: Florida Solar Energy Center
    Residential Hot Water Distribution: California Urban Water Conservation Council
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

LEED EA 7.1 and 7.2 are available to every project, whether the performance approach (LEED EA 1) or the prescriptive approach (LEED EA 2-10) is used.

Low-flow showerheads and faucets may also reduce demand for hot water and resulting energy use fro water heating. Points for installing low-flow showerheads are available under LEED WE3. Additional reductions in hot water energy use achieved through efficient appliances are addressed in LEED EA 9.

High Efficiency Water Heating Equipment
Water Heater Type and Efficiency Requirement Description Points
Gas water heaters
EF>= 0.53 (80 Gallon)
EF>= 0.57 (60 Gallon)
EF>= 0.61 (40 Gallon)
EF>= 0.8
CAE>= 0.8

High Efficiency storage water heater
High Efficiency storage water heater
High Efficiency storage water heater
High Efficiency storage water heater
Storage or tankless water heater
Combination water and space heaters
1
1
1
2
2
Electric water heaters
EF>= 0.89 (80 Gallon)
EF>= 0.92 (60 Gallon)
EF>= 0.93 (40 Gallon)
EF>= 0.99
CAE>= 2.0


High Efficiency storage water heater
High Efficiency storage water heater
High Efficiency storage water heater
High Efficiency storage water heater
Tankless water heater
Heat pump water heater


1
1
1
1
2
3
Solar Water Heaters (backup)
>= 40% of annul DHW load
>= 60% of annul DHW load

With preheat tank
With preheat tank

2
3
Lighting EA 8 Intent:

Reduce energy consumption associated with interior and exterior lighting.

Prerequisites: ENERGY STAR Lights LEED EA 8.1

Install at least (4) ENERGY STAR labeled light fixture or ENERGY STAR labeled compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFL's) in high-use rooms, such as kitchen, dining rooms, living rooms or hallways.

Credits: Improved Lighting (1.5 points max) LEED EA 8.2

Select and install one or both of the following measures:

    Indoor lighting (0.5 points) Install three additional ENERGY STAR labeled light fixtures or ENERGY STAR labeled compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFS's) in high-use rooms. These are in additions to those required under LEED EA 8.1.
    Exterior Lighting (1 point) All exterior lighting must have either motion sensor controls or integrated photovoltaic cells. The following lighting is exempt: emergency lighting; lighting required by code for health and safety purposes; and lighting used for eye adaptation near covered vehicle entrances or exits.

-OR-

Advanced Lighting Package (3 points) LEED EA 8.3

Install ENERGY STAR Advanced Lighting Package using only ENERGY STAR labeled fixtures. The advanced Lighting Package consists of a minimum of 60% ENERGY STAR qualified hardwired fixtures and 100% ENERGY STAR qualified ceiling fans (if any).

-OR-

Install ENERGY STAR labeled lamps in 80% of the fixtures throughout the home. ENERGY STAR labeled CFL's are acceptable. All ceiling fans must be ENERGY STAR labeled.

Overview:

Interior and Exterior lighting account for 5 to 15% of a new home's total energy use. ENERGY STAR labeled fixtures and bulbs use about 50 to 75% less energy than conventional lighting. Additional savings can be achieved with the use of dimmers and occupant sensors. High efficiency lamps also have a much longer lamp life.

Approach:
    To save the greatest amount of energy, install high efficiency lamps in high use areas such as the kitchen, dining, living, baths and hallways.
    For recessed can fixtures select airtight type cans labeled IC.
    For exterior fixtures, equip with infrared sensors and timers to turn lights on and off only when needed or there is motion.
    The criteria for ENERGY STAR light fixtures and lamps are presented in the following Table.
    Hover HERE to see the Table.
Calculations;

For LEED EA 8.3, calculate the percentage of the home's light fixtures that are ENERGY STAR Labeled.

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Builder/Project Team: LEED EA 8.3: Present calculations to the Green Rater demonstrating the percentage of light fixtures or lamps that are ENERGY STAR labeled.

Green Rater: LEED EA 8.1: Visually verify ENERGY STAR lights in the home. LEED EA 8.2: For (a) visually verify ENERGY STAR Lights. For (b), visually verify motion sensors and photovoltaic lights. LEED EA 8.3: Visually verify ENERGY STAR lights in the home. Visually verify the calculation for the percentage of ENERGY STAR labeled lights in the home.

Resources:
    ENERGY STAR Advanced Lighting Program: US EPA ENERGY STAR Program
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

Improving the lighting efficiency may also reduce cooling loads and the energy consumption associated with air-conditioning.

ENERGY STAR Sample Criteria for Light Fixtures and Lamps
Performance Metric ENERGY STAR specification
Combined lamp and ballast requirements
System efficiency per lamp ballast platform, in lumens per watt(LPW) >= LPW for all lamp types below 30 total listed lamp watts
>= 60 LPW for all lamp types that are <=24 inches and >= 30 total listed lamp watts
>= 70 LPW for all lamp types that are <=24 inches and >= 30 total listed lamp watts
Lamp Life For lamps shipped with fixtures, average rated life of lamp must be > 10,000 hours.
For lamps not shipped with fixtures, product packaging must meet requirements set forth in the "Product Packaging for Consumer Awareness" specifications of ENERGY STAR.
Lumen maintenance For lamps indicated on fixture packaging or shipped with fixtures, average rated lumen maintenance must be at least 80% of initial lamp lumens at 40% (4,000 hours minimum rater lamp life.
Color rendering Index For lamps shipped with fixtures, color rendering index must meet the following requirements:
>= 80 for compact fluorescent lamps;
>= 75 for linear fluorescent lamps.
For lamps not shipped with fixtures, product packaging must meet requirements set forth in "Product Packaging for Consumer Awareness" specifications of ENERGY STAR.
Correlated color temperature For lamps shipped with fixtures, the lamps must have one of the following designated correlated color temperatures (CCT): 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4100K, 5000K, or 6500K.
For lamps not shipped with fixtures, product packaging must meet requirements set forth in"Product Packaging for Consumer Awareness," below.
Appliances LEED EA 9 Intent:

Reduce appliance energy consumption

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: High-Efficency Appliances (2 points max) LEED 9.1

Install appliances from the list below. To receive points for one type (e.g. refrigerator), every appliance of that type must meet the applicable requirement below.

    ENERGY STAR labeled refrigerator(s) (1 point. Refer to Green Living Made Easy page on Energy Efficient Refrigerators.
    ENERGY STAR labeled ceiling fans (at least one in living or family room and one per bedroom) (0.5 point).
    ENERGY STAR labeled dishwasher(s) that use 6.0 gallons or less per cycle (0.5 point). Refer to Green Living Made Easy page on Energy Star Dishwashers.
    ENERGY STAR labeled clothes washer(s) (0.5 point).
Water-Efficient Clothes Washer (1 point) LEED 9.2

Install clothes washer with modified energy factor (MEF) >= 2.0 and water factor (WF) < 5.5. A clothes washer that meets these requirements and the requirements in EA 9.1 can be counted for both.

Overview:

Household appliances account for 20 to 30 percent of a home's total energy usage. Efficient household appliances can save a great amount of electrical energy and water. ENERGY STAR appliances save 20 to 30% over conventional appliances and horizontal axis clothes washers use 50% less water than conventional clothes washers.

Approach:

This credit address four types of appliances:

    Refrigerators: ENERGY STAR refrigerators consume approximate 50% less energy than refrigerators manufactured prior to 1993. To view a table for selection of refrigerator criteria -
    Hover HERE to see Refrigerator Criteria Table.
    Ceiling Fans: ENERGY STAR ceiling fans are also about 50% more efficient than conventional fans. To view a table for the selection criteria of ceiling fans, Hover HERE to see Table of Ceiling Fans.
    Dishwashers: The performance of dishwashers is compared using the energy factor (EF), which is expressed in cycles per kWh and is the reciprocal of the sum of the machine electrical energy per cycle (M), plus the water heating energy consumption per cycle (W): EF = 1/M+W This equation may vary based on dishwasher features such as water heating boosters or truncated cycles. EF is the energy performance metric of both the federal standard and the ENERGY STAR program. ENERGY STAR labeled dishwasher are at least 41% more energy efficient than those that meet the minimum federal government standards.
    Hover HERE to see Table of Criteria for Dishwashers.
    Clothes Washers: The performance of clothes washers is compared using 2 metrics. One, the modified energy factor (MEF), has replaced EF for clothes washers; the higher MEF, the more efficient the appliance. The second metric is the water factor cubic foot that the clothes washer uses; the lower the WF, the more efficient the washer.
    Hover HERE to see a table for selection criteria of Clothes Washers.
Calculations:

None

Exemplary Performance:

The energy models that are used for the performance pathway LEED EA 1 do not recognize the benefits of water-efficient clothes washers. A project using the performance pathway can earn exemplary performance points for meeting the requirements of LEED EA 9.1 and LEED EA 9.2 for clothes washers (1.5 points)

Verification and Submittals:

Builder Project Team: Present any equipment literature related to the appliances (e.g., user manuals, brochures, specifications) to the Green Rater. Include appliance literature in the occupant's operations and maintenance manual.

Green Rater: Visually verify (using equipment literature, labels etc.) the type of equipment installed and its efficiency.

Resources:
    ENERGY STAR Qualified Appliances: US EPA ENERGY STAR Program
    ENERGY STAR Qualified Ceiling Fans: US EPA ENERGY STAR Program
    Residential Dishwashers and High Efficiency Clothes Washers: California Urban Water Conservation Council
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

ENERGY STAR Criteria for Refrigerator and Freezers
Type Volume Criteria
Full-size refrigerators 7.75 cubic feet or greater At least 15% more energy efficient than minimum federal government standard (NAECA).
Full-size freezers

7.75 cubic feet or greater

At least 10% more energy efficient than minimum federal government standard (NAECA).
Compact refrigerators and freezers Less than 7.75 cubic feet and 36 inches or less in height At least 20% more energy efficient than minimum federal government standard (NAECA).
ENERGY STAR Criteria for Ceiling Fans
Sample Specifications

Residential ceiling fan airflow efficiency is defined on a performance basis: Cubic feet per minute (cfm) of airflow per watt of power consumed by motor and controls. Efficiency is measured on each of three speeds.

At low speed, fans must have minimum airflow of 1,250 cfm and efficiency of 155

Qualifying ceiling fan models must have minimum 30-year motor warranty; one-year components warranty; and tow-year light kits warranty.

At high speed, fans must have minimum airflow of 5,000 cfm and efficiency of 75 cfm/watt.

ENERGY STAR Criteria for Dishwashers
Type Federal EnergyGuide energy factor ENERGY STAR energy factor
Standard (>= 8 place settings + 6 serving pieces) >= 0.46 >= 0.65
Compact (< 8 place settings + 6 serving pieces)

>= 0.62

>= 0.88.
ENERGY STAR Criteria for Clothes Washers
Type Criteria before January 1, 2007 Criteria as of January 1, 2007
ENERGY STAR, top and front loading MEF >= 1.42 MEF >= 1.72
WF <=8.0
Federal standard, top and front loading

MEF >= 1.04

MEF >= 1.26
Renewable Energy Systems LEED EA 10 Intent:

Reduce consumption of nonrenewable energy sources by encouraging the installation and operation of renewable electric generation systems.

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: Renewable Energy System (10 point max) LEED EA 10

Design and install a renewable electricity generation system. Use energy modeling to estimate both the energy supplied by the renewable energy system and the annual reference load met by the systems.

Annual reference electric load is defined as the amount of electricity that a typical home (e.g. the HERS Reference Home) would consume in a typical year. The annual reference electric load must be determined using the procedures specified in the 2006 Mortgage Industry National Home Energy Rating Standards (HERS) Guidelines.

Example:
    Annual reference electric load = 10,000 KWh
    Annual electricity consumption in LEED home = 7,000 KWh
    Annual electricity supplied by renewable energy system = 1,800 KWh
    Percentage of annual reference electric load supplied by renewable energy system = 1,800/10,000 = 18%
    LEED points, under LEED EA 10 = 18.0/3 = 6.0 points.
Overview:

Recent years hove brought several electrical producing technologies to the forefront, especially with new technology and rising fuel costs.

Among these are solar and wind generation technologies. In certain areas of the the country there are considerable local and state incentives supplementing the rising tax benefits from the federal government making these systems within easy reach of the typical consumer. Usage of these systems not only saves the home owner a considerable amount on their utility bills, a side benefit is the reduction in greenhouse gases that these systems promote.

Approach:

Usage of renewable energy should be a compliment, not an alternative to a home. In other words, reduce your energy consumption first, utilizing methods within the LEED credit structure. When you have achieved an as efficient as possible design, supplement it with alternative energy systems. This will give you a much more affordable pathway to achieving a net "zero" energy footprint.

The following are ineligible for LEED EA 10 credits as they are addressed in other credit sections:

    Architectural Features: Passive solar strategies that are eligible in LEED EA 1.
    Geo-exchange systems: Systems such as geo-thermal heat pumps. Earth-coupled HVAC applications that do not obtain significant quantities of deep-earth heat or that use vapor-compression systems for heat transfer are not eligible. These are addressed in LEED EA 6.
    Solar domestic water heating systems: Active solar domestic water heating systems that employ collection panels and a defined heat storage system, such as a hot water tank, are not eligible for this credit. These are addressed in LEED EA 7.
    Green Power: Green power products (tradable renewable certificates, green TAGs, and renewable energy certificates) that are purchased from qualified contractual sources and delivered to the site via electric transmission lines are not builder-driven activities and hence are not explicitly included in the occupant's operations and maintenance manual.
Calculations:

The number of points earned is not based on a traditional calculation of percentage of energy demand met by the system. Instead, for the sake of consistency with the performance pathway and the HERS methodology, points are earned by comparing the renewable energy output (KWh) with the energy demand in a hypothetical reference home.

    Step 1: Have the renewable energy contractor estimate the annual electricity output of the system.
    Step 2: Have the energy rater or Green Rater model the annual electricity demand of a HERS reference home.
    Step 3: Calculate the percentage of the annual reference electrical load that is met by the renewable energy system.
    Step 4: Calculate the number of LEED points earned, where 1 point is awarded for every 3% of the annual reference electric load that is met by the renewable energy system.
Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Trade: Provide any equipment literature related to renewable energy systems to the building or project team leader. Provide calculations and/or modeling results to the builder or project team leader demonstrating the percentage or annual reference electric load being met. Sign the Accountability Form.

Builder/Project Team: Present any equipment literature related to renewable energy systems to the team leader. Present calculations and/or modeling results to the team leader. Include equipment literature in the Owner's maintenance manual.

Green Rater: Visually verify the renewable energy system on-site. Visually verify that the calculations meet the requirements. Verify that an Accountability Form has been sighed by the responsible party.

Resources:
    American Solar Energy Society
    American Wind Energy Association
    Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy
    Florida Solar Energy Center
    National Center for Photovoltaic's
    National renewable Energy Laboratory
    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: US DOE
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED EA 1 is not eligible for this credit, and vice versa. A project pursuing this credit must follow the prescriptive pathway and meet all the prerequisites in LEED EA 2-10. Prerequisite LEED EA 1.1 should be skipped.

Passive solar designs must be modeled and can take credit using the approach laid out in LEED EA 1.

Solar hot water heating systems are rewarded in EA 7.3.

Residential Refrigeration Management LEED EA 11 Intent:

Select and test air-conditioning refrigerant to ensure performance and minimize contributions to ozone depletion and global warming.

Prerequisites: Refrigerant Charge Test LEED EA 11.1

Provide proof of proper refrigerant charge of the air-conditioning system (unless the home has no mechanical cooling).

Credits: Appropriate HVAC Refrigerant (1 point) LEED EA 11.2

Do one of the following:

    Do not use refrigerants.
    Install an HVAC system with non-HCFC refrigerant (e.g., R-410a).

    Install an HVAC system with a refrigerant that complies with the following equation.
    Hover HERE to see Table.

    LCGWP + LCODP x 10^5 <= 160.

    Where LCODP =[ODPr x (Lr x Life / Mr) x Rc] / Life

    LCGWP = [GWPr x (Lr x Life / Mr) x Rc / Life

    LCODP = Lifecycle Ozone Depletion Potential (lv CFC11 / ton-year)

    LCGWP = Lifecycle Direct Global Warming Potential (lb CO2 / ton-year)

    GWPr - Global Warming Potential of Refrigerant (0-12,000 lb CO2/lbr)

    ODPr = Ozone Depletion Potential of Refrigerant (0-0.2 lb CFC11/lbr)

    Lr = Refrigerant Leakage Rate (0.5-2.0%; default of 2% unless otherwise demonstrated)

    Mr = End-of-Life Refrigerant Loss (2.0-10%; default of 10% unless otherwise demostrated)

    Rc = Refrigerant Charge (0.50-5.0 lbs of refrigerant per ton of cooling capacity)

    Life = Equipment Life (10-35 years; default based on equipment type, unless otherwise demonstrated)

Overview:

Refrigerant Charge is the ratio of refrigerant required (pounds) to cooling capacity provided (tons) by a piece of installed equipment. Both overcharging and undercharging can reduce the efficiency of the equipment. Hydorchlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) such as R22, have been the refrigerants of choice for residential heat pump and air-conditioning systems for more than 4 decades. Unfortunately for the environment, releases of HCFC's from system leaks contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. Beginning in 2010 HCFC will only be used to service existing equipment and new equipment is banned from using it.

Approach:

The easiest way to earn this point under LEED homes is to use not refrigerants. No calculations are required. Examples of this include homes with natural ventilation that use no mechanically or active air-conditioning systems. Where mechanical cooling is used, install an HVAC system with non-HCFC refrigerant (e.g., R410a). Design HVAC equipment such that the unit has the smallest possible refrigerant charge. Locate the evaporator and the condenser close together to reduce the potential for leakage. Select equipment with an efficient refrigerant charge. If the home utilizes refrigerant other than R410a, complete the calculation.
Hover HERE for a Table of Ozone Depletion of Common Refrigerants.

Calculations:

No calculations are required if R410a refrigerant is used. Otherwise use the equation to see if the refrigerant qualifies.

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Trade: LEED EA 11.1. Provide refrigerant charge test results to the builder or project team leader. LEED EA 11.2: For (b) and (c) provide information related to the type of refrigerant to the team leader/builder.

Builder/Team Leader: LEED EA 11.1: Present the refrigerant charge test results to the Green Rater. LEED EA 11.2: For (b) and (c) provide information related to the type of refrigerant to the Green Rater.

Resources:
    EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy: US EPA
    What You Should Know about Refrigerants When Purchasing or Repairing a Residential A/C System or Heat Pump: US EPA
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

Efficient air-conditioning systems are covered under LEED EA 6.

This credit is available to every project, whether the performance approach (LEED EA 1) or the prescriptive approach (LEED EA 2-10) is used.

Examples of Residential Refrigerants Eligible for EA 11.2
Refrigerant Combined LCGWP+ LCODP score System Size Refrigerant Charge Leakage Rate Equipment Life
R410a 152 2 tons 3.7 lb/ton 1.5% 15 years
R410a 151 3 tons 3.0 lb/ton 2.0% 15 years
R410a 151 4 tons 3.0 lb/ton 2.0% 15 years
R410a 121 5 tons 3.0 lb/ton 2.0% 15 years
Environmental Effects of Common HVAC refrigerants (100 Year values)
Refrigerant Ozone depletion potential Global warming potential Common applications
Chlorofluorocarbons
CFC-11 1.0 4,680 Centrifugal Chillers
CFC-12 1.0 10,720 Refrigerators, chillers
CFC-114 0.94 9,800 Centrifugal chillers
CFC-500 0.605 7,900 Centrifugal chillers, humidifiers
CFC-502 0.221 4.600 Low-temperature refrigeration
Hydorchlorofluorocarbons
HCFC-22 0.04 1,780 Air-conditioning, chillers
HCFC-123 0.02 76 CFC-11 replacement
Hydro fluorocarbons      
HFC-23 ~ 0 12,240 Ultra-low-temperature refrigeration
HFC-134a ~0 1,320 CFC-12 or HCF-22 replacement
HFC-245fa ~0 1,020 Insulation agent, centrifugal chillers
HFC-404A ~0 3,900 Low-temperature refrigeration
HFC-407A ~0 1,700 HCFC-22 replacement
HFC-410A ~0 1,890 Air-conditioning
HFC-507A ~0 3,900 Low-temperature refrigeration
Natural refrigerants
Carbon dioxide 0 1.0  
Ammonia 0 0  
Propane 0 3  
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