LEED LL

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LEED LL - Location and Linkages

Location and Linkages LEED LL encourages close availability to neighborhood services and mass transit

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Since there are many site-related issues involved with building a home, LEED LL gives you opportunities to gain points in several sustainable categories.

Fragmentation of our precious farmland and minimizing damage to environmentally sensitive sites is the hallmark of this chapter. The building team is also encouraged to locate the building site close to community services and transportation, such as mass transit, bus and rail transportation.

Community services consist of retail and service convenience stores that all homeowners require in our everyday life. Where we shop for food, gas, go to church, exercise are all important destinations. the closer we are located to these iminities, the less fossil fuel is consumed and if close, enough a health walk will ensue.

Also, location of a project within an existing development or developed area saves on infrastructure required for the project, such as roads, utilities and excavation.

Be sure to check out the many pages within Green Living Made Easy, as we address many of today's issues of being green to save green and to be healthy.

Most importantly this LEED section allows for 2 different pathways to achieve points. You have to take one or the other, not both.

Pathway One: (10) Points available

LEED for Neighborhood Development.

    Incorporate principles of smart growth, new urbanism, and green building into neighborhood design.
    Pilot to conclude in late 2008. Use this path if you plan to build in a LEED for Neighborhood certified development only.
Pathway Two: (10) Points available

Use this for all other home projects. Meet the following criteria:

    Site Selection: LL 2
    Preferred Locations: LL 3
    Infrastructure: LL 4
    Community Resources: LL 5
    Access to Open Space: LL 6
  • LL 1
  • LL 2
  • LL 3
  • LL 4
  • LL 5
  • LL 6
LEED for Neighborhood Development LEED LL 1 Intent:

Minimize the environmental impact of land development practices by building homes in LEED for Neighborhood Development certified developments.

Credits LEED for Neighborhood Development (10 Points) LEED LL 1 Overview:

The USGBC's LEED for Neighborhood Development Rating System is designed to certify communities that emphasize environmentally responsible planning. LEED for Neighborhood Development offers many benefits over conventional developments, including:

    more efficient use of land
    reduced development and fragmentation of farmland and wilderness,
    reduced need for infrastructure extension, and
    a wider and more sustainable range of transportation options - including walking, biking, or access to mass transit.

This credit rewards builders who choose to build their projects in LEED Certified Neighborhoods.

Approach:
    New projects will be able to register for LEED for for Neighborhood Development Neighborhoods

    To determine whether LEED for Neighborhood Development, may be appropriate, review the rating system on the Web site, paying particular attention to the prerequisites. Projects that cannot pursue LEED for Neighborhood Development certification can pursue similar strategies using LEED LL 2-6.

    Homes built in small infill projects that are single use but complement existing neighboring uses can earn certification as well as homes in larger, mixed-use developments.

Calculations:

None

Verification/Submittals:

Builder/Project Team: Demonstrate LEED for Neighborhood Dev. certification

Green Rater: Demonstrate LEED for Neighborhood Dev. certification

Resources:
    LEED for Neighborhood Development USGBC
    The Congress for New Urbanism CNU
    Natural Resources Defense Council NRDC
Synergies and Trade-offs

Not available for LEED LL 2 - 6 if this pathway is taken and vice versa.

Site Selection LEED LL 2 (2 points) Intent:

Avoid development on environmentally sensitive sites.

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: Site Selection (2 points) LEED LL 2.1

Do not development buildings, built structures, roads, or parking on land meeting ALL the following criteria:

    Land elevation below 100 year flood plane, defined by FEMA
    Land inhabited by endangered species on federal or state endangered list
    Land within 100 feet of any water, including wetlands as defined by US Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR, Parts 230-233 and Part 22, and isolated wetlands or areas of special concern identified by state or local rule, or land within distances given in applicable state or local regulations, whichever is more stringent. New wetlands constructed as part of stormwater mitigation or other site restoration efforts are exempt from this part of the requirement.
    Land that prior to acquisition for the project was public parkland, unless land of equal or greater value as parkland is accepted in trade by the public landowner (park authority projects are exempt).
    Land that contains "prime soils,""unique soils ," or "soils of state significance," as identified in state Natural Resources Conservation Service soil surveys. Verification of soil types should be conducted by he project civil engineer, wetlands engineer, or biologist. If no project team member is qualified to verify this requirement, follow the steps laid out in the LEED for Homes Reference Guide. Sites that are previously developed are exempt from this requirement.
Approach:

Build on previously developed infill lots. This land will likely be closer to public transportation, bike paths and neighborhood amenities. To find soil data, download files from GIS

Calculations:

At least 95% of the site must meet the criteria listed above.

Exemplary Performance

None

Verification and Submittals:

Civil Engineer: Provide necessary site soil data to project team

Builder/Project Team: Review soil data and sign accountability form

Green Rater: Verify accountability form is signed by responsible party.

Resources:
    Inhabitat.com
    BuildingGreen, Inc.
    Us Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program
    Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. ESRI
    Digital Q3 Floor Data Availability, States Map

Synergies and Trade-Offs

A project receiving points for LEED LL 1 is not eligible for points under LEED LL 2-6, and vice versa.

Preferred Locations LEED LL 3 Intent:

Encourage the building of LEED homes near on within existing communities.

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: Edge Development (1 point) LEED LL 3.1

Select a lot that 25% of the perimeter immediately border on previously developed land. In the case of a multihome new development, each home in the development is awarded this point if at least 25% of the development site immediately borders previously developed land.

-OR-

Infill (2 points) LEED LL 3.2

Select a lot such that at lest 75% of the perimeter immediately border previously developed land. In the case of a multihome new development, each home in the development is awarded this point if at least 75% of the development site immediately borders previously developed land.

-AND/OR-

Previously Developed Land (1 point) LEED LL 3.3

Build on a previously developed lot. In the case of a multihome new development, each home in the development is awarded this point if at least 75% of the development site immediately borders previously developed land.

Overview:

The best strategy minimize the environmental impact of building on an undeveloped site, is to elect to build on a previously development site, within existing neighborhoods, or in an edge development. This minimizes the fragmentation of farmland, wetlands and minimizes disturbance to endangered species.

Often such remote communities are called "leapfrog" communities and they tend to consume large amounts of farmland, required expansive additions to utilities and devastate other environmentally sensitive resources such as wildlife and vegetation.

Research has shown that maximization of site in urbanized areas of the US would consume only 350,000 acres, rather than 1.2 million acres, of undeveloped farmland and open space to accommodate overall housing needs.

Approach:
    Seek to build near existing communities. Incorporate smart growth principles into the overall business model.
    Examine the surrounding land adjacent very carefully. Whether a specific site is previously developed relates to the history of development on the site. Some sites, particularly multihome developments, will have a mix of land that is previously development
    An infill site is not necessarily previously developed, and vice versa. A project can earn points for being previously developed even if it is not an edge development or infill site, and vice versa..
Calculations:
    Estimate percentage of total site that immediately borders previously dev. land.
    Waterways, roads, sidewalks do not count as previously developed land
    Edge Dev Site: 25% of border on development.
    Infill Site: 75% or more of border on development.
Exemplary Performance:

Note

Verification and Submittals:

Builder/Project Team: Present relevant calculations to Green Rater

Green Rater: Visually verify that the calculations are complete and satisfy the credit requirements; and/or. Visually verify that the site meets the credit requirements.

Resources:
    EPA, Brownfield Sites
    Infill Development Strategies for Shaping Livable Neighborhoods
    Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington
    National Vacant Properties Campaign
    National Resources Defense Council
    Smart Growth America
    Smart Growth Network
Synergies and Trade-Offs

A project receiving points for LEED LL 1 is not eligible for points under LEED LL 2-6, and vice versa.

Infrastructure LEED LL 4 Intent:

Encourage the building of LEED homes in developments that are served by or are near existing infrastructure. (i.e., sewers and water supply).

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: Existing Infrastructure LEED LL 4 (1 point)

Select a lot that is within 1/2 mile of existing water service lines and sewer service lines. In the case of a multihome new development, each home in the development is awarded this point if the center of the development is within 1/2 mile of existing water service lines and sewer service lines.

Overview:

Sites located near existing utilities and services such as water and sewer lines, minimizes the need and energy to install these services for the site. LEED LL 3.3 addresses project sites that have existing paved roads, preexisting structures (e.g., brownfield or grayfields), or altered landscapes. LEED LL1.4 concern proximity to water and sewer lines.

This credit rewards a project team that locates a project within an existing development that already has water and sewer services available.

Approach:

Give preference to sites that have access to public water and sewer lines. This credit cannot be earned through the use of private wells and or septic tank service.

For multiple family developments, this credit can be earned if the development boundary meets the criteria.

Calculations:

Measure distance from home to nearest utility line available.

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Builder/Project Team: If necessary, present local maps and documents to the Green Rater demonstrating the proximity of the home to existing water and sewer infrastructure.

Green Rater: Visually verify with maps and on site that utilities meet requirements.

Resources:
    Environment and Energy Study Institute
    Smart Growth Network
Synergies and Trade-Offs:

A project receiving points for LEED LL 1 is not eligible for points under LEED LL 2-6, and vice versa.

Community Resources - Transit LEED LL 5 Intent:

Encourage the building of LEED homes in development patterns that allow for walking, biking, or public transit - thereby minimizing automobile traffic. (thereby minimizing dependency on personal automobiles and their associated environmental impacts).

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: Basic Community Resources/Transit (1 point) LEED LL 5.1

Note: For new multihome developments, the distances below can be measured from the center of the community as long as the distance from the center of the community to the farthest home does not exceed 1/4 mile. Using this approach, whole communities can qualify for this credit. For any homes farther than 1/4 mile from the center of the community, distances must be recalculated for each home.

Select a site based on one of the following criteria: Hover Mouse HERE for Community Resources Table

    Located 1/4 mile from 4 basic community services
    Located 1/2 mile from 7 basic community services
    Located 1/2 mile from transit service that offer 30 or more rides per weekday (combined bus,rail, and ferry).

Transit rides per weekday are calculated as follows: (1) within a 1/2 mile radius, count all the transit stops; (2) multiply each transit sop by the number of busses, trains, and ferries that pass through that stop per day; (3) add the total number of rides available at each stop within 1/2 mile together. Example: If there are four bus stops, and at each bus stop the service frequency is half-hourly (48 times per day), the total transit rides per day is 192.

-OR-

Extensive Community Resources/Transit (2 points) LEED LL 5.2

Select a site based on one of the following criteria:
Hover Mouse HERE for Community Resources Table

    Located within 1/4 mile of 7 basic community resources
    Located within 1/2 mile of 11 basic community resources
    Located within 1/2 mile of transit service that offer 60 or more transit rides per weekday. (combined bus,rail, and ferry).
Outstanding Community Resources/Transit (3 points) LEED LL5.3

Select a site based on one of the following criteria:

Hover Mouse HERE for Community Resources Table

    Located within 1/4 mile of 11 basic community resources
    Located within 1/2 mile of 14 basic community resources
    Located within 1/2 mile of transit service that offer 125 or more transit rides per weekday. (combined bus,rail, and ferry).
Overview:

With the location of new housing writing existing developed communities, access to public transportation is much more possible. This save resources in purchasing perhaps an additional automobile and the maintenance and overhead associated with that. It also means that if given a good resource, people can walk for both their health and to run short errands to communities that are close by.

According to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics vehicle use in the US nearly tripled from 1 trillion to 2.99 trillion miles per year, between 1970 and 2005. Vehicles are responsible for more than 20 percent of US greenhouse gas emissions. Vehicle emissions contribute to climate change, smog, and particulate pollution, which all are harmful to human health and natural ecosystems. Approach:

    Build new homes on sites that are within walking distance of mass transit, such as buses and light rail.
    Design mixed use projects that include community resources with commercial and other nonresidential establishments to serve the community..
    Contact local transit authority for existing or planned route changes or additions within the area you are considering for construction. Ideally the information will be provided in a geo-referenced format. Using a gis buffer analysis, identify site that have adequate transit service per the requirement herein.
    Contact local agencies including Chamber of Commerce on existing community resources. Also refer to Google Maps to identify community resources within in the area.
    Incorporate walkways bike paths throughout multi-family areas, both near streets and between the green spaces, that enable easy pedestrian access to the border community services.
Calculations:

Count up all community resources. Two of each type can be utilized. For example (2) restaurants can count for two of the 4 required resources identified in LEED LL 5.1. For a project that wants to submit a community resource that does not appear on the Community Resources Table, a Credit Interpretation Request must be submitted.

Calculate transit rides per weekday as follows:

    Count all transit stops that are within 1/2 mile of the home. In the case of large developments, count the distance from the center of the development.
    For each transit stop, count the number of times a bus, train, or ferry stops per day;
    Sum the total number of rides per day for each stop within 1/2 mile..
Verification and Submittals:

Builder/Project Team; Present maps and/or a list of community resources or transit modes to the Green Rater. If applicable, present calculations for transit rides to the Green Rater.

Green Rater; Visually verify (using maps, lists provided by the project team, and/or on-site observation) the presence of community resources or transit rides. If applicable, visually verify calculations for transit rides.

Exemplary Performance

None

Resources:
    Best Workplaces for Commuters
    Victoria Transportation Policy Institute
Community Resources Table
Community Resource
Arts and Entertainment Center
Bank
Community Center
Convenience Store
Daycare Center
Fire Station
Fitness Center or Gym
Laundry or Dry Cleaner
Library
Medical or Dental Office
Pharmacy
Police Station
Post Office
Church
Restaurant
School
Supermarket
Other Neighborhood Retail

Other Office Building or Other Major Employment

Access to Open Space LEED LL 6 Intent:

Provide open spaces to encourage walking, physical activity, and time spent outdoors.

Prerequisites:

None

Credits: Access to Open Space(1 point) LEED LL 6

Select a location within 1/2 mile of a publicly accessible or community based open space that is at least 3/4 acre in size. The open space requirement can be met by either one large open space or two smaller spaces totaling 3/4 acre.

Note: Open spaces must consist predominantly of softscapes such as soil, grass, shrubs, and trees. These include natural open spaces; city, county, and state parks; play areas; and other community open spaces specifically intended for recreational use. Ponds can be counted as open space if they border a walking or bicycle path. Private lands open to the public for passive recreation are also acceptable provided there is deeded public access or a history of allowable public use and anticipated continued future public use for at least 10 years.

Overview:

It is proven that open spaces provided in and around residential areas promotes wellness and calming effects to the occupants of the surrounding homes.

It is also a know fact that trees, shrubs and grassy areas provide ecological benefits such as increased oxygen levels in the atmosphere, reduced heat island effect and places for storm water to be absorbed naturally rather than having to deal with it in a storm water conveyance system.

This credit rewards builds who take the initiative to develop in areas that are in close proximity to parks, recreation areas, dedicated open fields and green buffer areas. Approach:

    Use local maps and geographic surveys to pinpoint parks, playgrounds etc. the the vicinity. Existing park information can be obtained from the local planning departments, parks and recreation departments or similar entities.
    Large developments should incorporate open spaces within their property limits and depend somewhat less on the location of parks and recreation areas. Try to provide these immunities internally and more greatly benefit the residents of the large multi-family complexes.
Calculations:

None

Exemplary Performance:

None

Verification and Submittals:

Builder/Project Team: Present directions and maps to Green Rater.

Green Rater: Visually verify (with maps and/or on-site observation) the presence of open spaces that meet the requirements of the credit.

Resources:
    National Park and Recreation Association
    Municipal Research Services Center of Washington
Synergies and Trade-Offs

A project receiving points for LEED LL 1 is not eligible for points under LEED LL 2-6, and vice versa.

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